Gene Structure I: DNA and Chromatin Structures
Lou-sing Kan, Institute of Chemistry
September 9, 2003
Brief history to 1990
1869 Nucleic acid was discovered by F. Miescher, results published in 1871.
1894 Discovered that nucleic acid contains adenine, cytosine, guanine, uracil, posphoricacid and pentose by O. Hammarsten. The pentose was recognized as a ribose by P. A. Levene and W. A. Jacobs in 1909. Thus, the RNA was discovered.
1930 P. A. Levene found the pentose from thymus gland was deoxyribose. Thus, the DNA was discovered.
1944 O. T. Avery, C. M. MacLeod, M. McCarty postulated that nucleic acid was genetic materials. However, it was first described by F. Griffth in 1928.
1950 E. Chargaff published the compositions of A=T and G=C. This was called as Chargaff Rule.
1953 J. A. Watson and F. H. C. Crick postulated a double-stranded helical structure for DNA based on M. H. F. Wilkens and R. E. Franklinˇ¦s X-ray study results.
1957 A. Rich and co-workers published the triple-stranded nucleic acid structure.
1965 R. W. Holley published the nucleotide sequence of alanine t-RNA.
1970ˇ¦s The crystal structure of phenylanaline t-RNA was determined by A. Rich and A. Klug simultaneously.
1980ˇ¦s Z-DNA structure was discovered by A. Rich and A. H.-J. Wang.
1987 P. A. Sharp discovered intron
1987 T. R. Cech discovered RNA has enzymatic activity.
Nucleosides and nucleotides
Oligonucleotide (The phosphodiester linkage)
The base pairs (The hydrogen bonding)
The double-stranded DNA
The structure and properties of Bases
The structure of sugar
The structure of oligonucleotide
Cruciform structures in DNA
5ˇ¦ GGAATCGATCTTAAGATCGATTCC 3ˇ¦
3ˇ¦ CCTTAGCTAGAATTCTAGCTAAGG 5ˇ¦
Triple-stranded nucleic acids
The structure of chromatin